unable to eat

Duodenal Atresia

What is duodenal atresia?

The duodenum is the first portion of small intestine after the stomach that has many connections to and shares blood vessels with other organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. When part of the bowel fails to develop normally in the fetus, a blockage of the duodenum can occur, otherwise known as an atresia or bowel obstruction. Duodenal atresias can occur as a complete or partial blockage of any portion of the duodenum. Newborns diagnosed with duodenal atresia often present with vomiting.

Duodenal atresia occurs between 1 in 1,000 and 1 in 5,000 live births. About 1/3 of infants born with duodenal atresia will also have Down Syndrome.  Because of this association, newborns have often tested for other problems such a heart defects.

What will happen during pregnancy?

In general, duodenal atresia is difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Prenatal diagnosis is usually based on non-specific signs on fetal ultrasound such as a dilated stomach. Because the amniotic fluid is normally swallowed and digested by the fetus, duodenal atresia can cause an increase in fluid in the amniotic sac, hydramnios. Although there are many other causes of hydramnios, this may be the first sign of a duodenal atresia.

Duodenal atresia may be suspected by a routine prenatal ultrasound in the third trimester. Although the ultrasound may be suggestive that there is an abnormality, it cannot determine with 100% certainty that there is a bowel obstruction.

The obstetrician may order a special ultrasound that will examine the baby’s heart, also known as a fetal echocardiogram, and recommend an amniocentesis to look for chromosomal abnormalities. The mother’s amniotic fluid and the growth of the baby will be monitored closely with ultrasound by the obstetrician. Severe hydramnios may put the mother at risk for early delivery.

The fetal team will closely evaluate your fetus with duodenal atresia and help determine the best course of treatment. Your pregnancy will be closely monitored for complications. The Center coordinator will keep you in contact with the appropriate physicians and specialists as well as coordinating the care for you and your baby after delivery.

Will a fetal treatment be required?

Although there are no prenatal treatment options for a baby with duodenal atresia, careful planning of delivery and care of the baby after birth can make a smooth transition for mother and child.

What special considerations should be made for delivery?

Type of delivery – Babies with duodenal atresia usually do not need a cesarian delivery. The delivery plan will be discussed with you and your obstetrician.

Place of delivery – As long as the baby does not demonstrate signs of distress, he or she can be cared for and delivered with usual obstetrical precautions. After birth, the baby can be safely transported to a treatment centre with doctors and services such as a neonatal intensive care unit and the paediatric surgery. A child diagnosed with duodenal atresia will require an operation to address the problem and may stay in the hospital for several weeks.

Time of delivery -Intentional early delivery does not improve outcome. However, increasing amniotic fluid levels (hydramnios) does raise the chance for preterm delivery. If complications arise, the obstetrician may decide to induce delivery earlier than the expected due date.

http://childrens.memorialhermann.org/services/duodenal-atresia/

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Duodenal atresia

Duodenal atresia occurs in the duodenum and causes a blockage. The duodenum is the bowel adjoining the stomach. Atresia means gap. Occasionally there may not be a complete atresia but a partial narrowing (stenosis) instead.

Duodenal atresia can be diagnosed on an ultrasound scan antenatally. This is a rare condition, the incidence is thought to be around 1 in 10,000 births. There is no known cause for this, but it is believed to have occurred sometime during the early weeks of pregnancy. 

Duodenal Atresia

The diagnosis is made by seeing two fluid-filled areas in the baby’s abdomen which are the dilated stomach and duodenum. This is referred to as the ‘double bubble’ of duodenal atresia. This may have been detected on an antenatal scan or may not be detected until after the delivery when the baby starts to vomit.

Duodenal atresia can result in an increase in the amniotic fluid around the baby (known as polyhydramnios) which may lead to an early delivery.

Duodenal atresia can be associated with other abnormalities. Approximately one-third of babies with duodenal atresia have a chromosomal condition known as Down’s Syndrome and it is possible to test for this antenatally. This will be discussed with you by the team caring for you during your pregnancy. Other investigations may be necessary after the baby is born. 

http://www.uhs.nhs.uk/OurServices/Childhealth/Neonatalsurgery/Conditionswetreat/DuodenalAtresia.aspx

Found a FaceBook Group dealing with this Support TEF/EA, Duodenal Atresia, CHD & g-tubes, Click to join.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/189825297764342/

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Diagnosing Down Syndrome

Updated April 20, 2016

Duodenal atresia is a birth defect of the digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) system that occurs more frequently in infants with Down Syndrome. Somewhere between 5 percent and 7 percent of infants with Down syndrome will be born with duodenal atresia, as compared to only 1 in 10,000 infants who do not have Down syndrome.

No one knows exactly why this happens, but it is known that it occurs early in the prenatal development of a fetus, prior to eleven weeks gestation. Rest assured that if your baby has duodenal atresia, there is nothing that you did to cause it or could have done to prevent it. Most infants with this problem do well after surgery.

https://www.verywell.com/duodenal-atresia-in-down-syndrome-1120476

Down Syndrome is typically diagnosed during pregnancy or shortly after birth. Learn about the screenings available and what they mean.

Step-by-Step Guide to Diagnosing Down Syndrome

Your paediatrician is often the first to suspect the diagnosis of Down syndrome in a newborn. The diagnosis is usually considered when a baby has certain physical findings, facial features, and possibly other birth defects.This step-by-step guide will explain what your paediatrician is looking for, and what tests are necessary to diagnose Down syndrome in a newborn baby.It is important to remember that while there are some similar findings that lead to a diagnosis of Down syndrome, no single baby with Down syndrome will have all of the features described here. Nor does the number of physical problems in a baby with Down syndrome correlate with their intellectual capacity. Each and every child with Down syndrome has their own unique personality and strengths.

CONT….

https://www.verywell.com/making-the-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome-1120403

Are You at Risk of Having a Baby With Down Syndrome?

https://www.verywell.com/maternal-age-related-risks-for-down-syndrome-1120390

For the Full page on this click here

https://www.verywell.com/down-syndrome-diagnosis-4014232

For more info click here and lean, plus these are the support groups that can help you more.

http://www.savingdownsyndrome.org/

https://www.facebook.com/DownSyndromeDiagnosisNetwork/

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Orchiopexy

Undescended Testicle Repair Surgery 

What Is an Undescended Testicle Repair?

Undescended testicle repair surgery, also known as orchiopexy or orchidopexy, is a procedure that corrects cryptorchidism. This is a condition in which one or both testicles haven’t dropped into their proper position in the scrotum.

Orchiopexy is usually performed on infant males who are between 5 and 15 months old. The surgery reduces the risks of complications later in life.

Orchiopexy may also be performed on men whose undescended testicles weren’t corrected as children. However, the surgery isn’t recommended in all cases and should be discussed with a doctor.

The testicles begin developing in baby boys while they’re still inside their mother’s womb. Normally, the testicles drop down into the scrotum during the last few months before birth. In some cases, however, one or both testicles fail to descend correctly.

In half of these cases, a child’s testicles will drop down into their correct position within the scrotum within the first year of life without treatment. When the testicles don’t descend within the first year, the condition is known cryptorchidism. If your son has cryptorchidism, their doctor will likely recommend surgery to correct it. Undescended testicle repair surgery, also known as orchiopexy or orchidopexy, is an operation that’s commonly done to correct the placement of a testicle that hasn’t dropped into the scrotum. It’s usually performed on boys who are between 5 and 15 months old.

 Why Is an Undescended Testicle Repair Performed?

Orchiopexy is performed to correct cryptorchidism, a condition in which one or both testicles haven’t descended into their proper position in the scrotum. If it’s left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to infertility, increase the risk of testicular cancer, and cause hernias in the groyne. It’s important to correct cryptorchidism in your child so that these risks are minimised.

Surgical options may differ for adult males whose undescended testicles weren’t corrected during childhood. Orchiopexy is usually the preferred choice for men who are age 32 and under. However, a doctor may suggest the complete removal of undescended testicles for younger men who are at a high risk of developing cancer. Orchiopexy usually isn’t performed on men over age 32, as there is an increased risk of adverse reactions to anaesthesia. If you’re in this situation, consult with your doctor or a urologist to learn more about your options.

How Do we Prepare for an Undescended Testicle Repair?

Orchiopexy is done under general anaesthesia, so certain rules for eating and drinking must be followed in the hours leading up to the procedure. The doctor will give your child specific instructions that they must follow.

While very young children may not realise that they’re going in for surgery, older children may get nervous before their procedure. They might feel especially nervous if you as a parent feel worried. Educate yourself about the procedure so that you feel comfortable and don’t unknowingly project your anxiety onto your son.

What Happens During an Undescended Testicle Repair?

Read more here

http://www.healthline.com/health/undescended-testicle-repair#Procedure4

More info with photos

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/undescended+testis

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Cryptorchidism

Undescended Testicle

Cryptorchidism literally means hidden or obscure testis. It is synonymous with an incomplete testicular descent. The condition may be unilateral or bilateral. The term encompasses palpable, nonpalpable, and ectopic testicles The position of testis can be abdominal, inguinal, prescrotal, or gliding. Incidence is 3-5% in full-term boys, and 1.8% at one year of age.

The testicles descend to a scrotal position in human beings in order to optimise sperm production. The actual mechanisms of descent are unknown at present time. Certain important factors that cause proper descent include traction on testis by attachments in the scrotum, differential growth of the body wall, intra-abdominal pressure, maturation of the epididymis being responsible for migration of the testis. Multiple hormonal factors contribute also.

https://www.cornellurology.com/clinical-conditions/pediatric-urology/cryptorchidism/

And

http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/cryptorchidism-definition-treatment.html

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related +

What you read under here is to give you an idea about this rare condition, and a starting point from where you can start from

Feingold syndrome

Before you read what I have found and put together I would like to let you know of a Facebook Group I have stumbled across and in placing here above this post on my website can give you hope that you’re not alone.

The group is called

Skyler Journey with Feingold Syndrome

Click on the red link below

https://www.facebook.com/groups/1215073018509703/

What is Feingold syndrome?

Feingold syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. Individuals with Feingold syndrome have characteristic abnormalities of their fingers and toes. Almost all people with this condition have a specific hand abnormality called brachymesophalangy, which refers to shortening of the second and fifth fingers. Other common abnormalities include fifth fingers that curve inward (clinodactyly), underdeveloped thumbs (thumb hypoplasia), and fusion (syndactyly) of the second and third toes or the fourth and fifth toes.

People with Feingold syndrome are frequently born with a blockage in part of their digestive system called gastrointestinal atresia. In most cases, the blockage occurs in the oesophagus (oesophagal atresia) or in part of the small intestine (duodenal atresia). Additional common features of Feingold syndrome include an unusually small head size (microcephaly), a small jaw (micrognathia), a narrow opening of the eyelids (short palpebral fissures), and mild to moderate learning disability. Less often, affected individuals have hearing loss, impaired growth, and kidney and heart abnormalities.

How common is Feingold syndrome?

Feingold syndrome appears to be a rare condition, although its exact prevalence is unknown.

What genes are related to Feingold syndrome?

Mutations in the MYCN gene cause Feingold syndrome. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development. Studies in animals suggest that this protein is necessary for normal development of the limbs, heart, kidneys, nervous system, digestive system, and lungs. The MYCN protein regulates the activity of other genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA. On the basis of this action, this protein is called a transcription factor.

Mutations in the MYCN gene that cause Feingold syndrome prevent one copy of the gene in each cell from producing any functional MYCN protein. As a result, only half the normal amount of this protein is available to control the activity of specific genes during embryonic development. It remains unclear how a reduced amount of the MYCN protein causes the specific features of Feingold syndrome.

What is the official name of the MYCN gene?

The official name of this gene is “v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog.” MYCN is the gene’s official symbol. The MYCN gene is also known by other names.

What is the normal function of the MYCN gene?

The MYCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development. Studies in animals suggest that this protein is necessary for normal development of the limbs, heart, kidneys, nervous system, digestive system, and lungs. The MYCN protein regulates the activity of other genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA. On the basis of this action, this protein is called a transcription factor.The MYCN gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. When mutated, oncogenes have the potential to cause normal cells to become cancerous. The MYCN gene is a member of the Myc family of oncogenes. These genes play important roles in regulating cell growth and division (proliferation) and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). 

Does the MYCN gene share characteristics with other genes?

The MYCN gene belongs to a family of genes called bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix). A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other.

 Neuroblastoma – associated with the MYCN gene

Some gene mutations are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These changes, which are not inherited, are called somatic mutations. Somatic mutations sometimes occur when DNA makes a copy of itself (replicates) in preparation for cell division. Errors in the replication process can result in one or more extra copies of a gene within a cell. The presence of extra copies of certain genes, known as gene amplification, can underlie the formation and growth of tumour cells. For example, amplification of the MYCN gene is found in about 25 percent of neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma is a type of cancerous tumour that arises in developing nerve cells. The number of copies of the MYCN gene varies widely among these tumours but is typically between 50 and 100. Amplification of the MYCN gene is associated with a more severe form of neuroblastoma. It is unknown how amplification of this gene contributes to the aggressive nature of neuroblastoma.

How do people inherit Feingold syndrome?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.In some cases, an affected person inherits the mutation from one affected parent. Other cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Feingold syndrome?  JUST CLICK ON THESE LINKS

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7050/

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C0796068/

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/conditions/C3280489/

www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003272.htm

Webbing of the fingers or toes

Other Name’s used  Syndactyly; Polysyndactyly

Syndactyly-Image-1-copy OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003289.htm

2015 May 31

Neurobehavioral Alterations in a Genetic Murine Model of Feingold Syndrome 2

Abstract

Feingold syndrome (FS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by microcephaly, short stature, digital anomalies, oesophagal/duodenal atresia, facial dysmorphism, and various learning disabilities. Heterozygous deletion of the miR-17-92 cluster is responsible for a subset of FS (Feingold syndrome type 2, FS2), and the developmental abnormalities that characterise this disorder are partially recapitulated in mice that harbour a heterozygous deletion of this cluster (miR-17-92∆/+ mice). Although Feingold patients develop a wide array of learning disabilities, no scientific description of learning/cognitive disabilities, intellectual deficiency and brain alterations have been described in humans and animal models of FS2. The aim of this study was to draw a behavioural profile, during development and in adulthood, of miR-17-92∆/+ mice, a genetic mouse model of FS2. Moreover, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin tissue levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC), and Hippocampus (Hip) of miR-17-92∆/+ mice were analysed. Our data showed decreased body growth and reduced vocalisation during development. Moreover, selective deficits in spatial ability, social novelty recognition and memory span were evident in adult miR-17-92∆/+ mice compared with healthy controls (WT). Finally, we found altered dopamine as well as serotonin tissue levels, in the mpFC and Hip, respectively, of miR-17-92∆/+ in comparison with WT mice, thus suggesting a possible link between cognitive deficits and altered brain neurotransmission.

2013

MiR-17/92 and Normal Development

The miR-17/92 cluster is highly expressed in embryonic cells and has an important role in development.

MiR-17/92 was the first group of miRNAs to be implicated in a developmental syndrome in humans. Indeed, studies of patients with Feingold syndrome revealed an important role for the miR-17/92 cluster in normal skeletal development. Human patients with heterozygous microdeletions in the MIR17HG locus have autosomal dominant Feingold syndrome, characterised by multiple skeletal abnormalities in the fingers and toes, short stature and microcephaly. Some patients also show various degrees of learning and developmental disabilities.

Feingold Syndrome.

Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/feingold-syndrome#

Feingold Syndrome 1

CLICK ON THE UNDERLINED RED WORDING TO TAKE YOU TO MORE INFO

Clinical characteristics.

Feingold syndrome 1 is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild to moderate learning disability.

Diagnosis/testing.

Diagnosis is based on clinical findings. MYCN is the only gene in which mutation is known to cause Feingold syndrome 1.

Management.

Treatment of manifestations: Gastrointestinal atresia is treated surgically. Hearing loss, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies are treated in the usual manner.

Genetic counseling.

Feingold syndrome 1 is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Approximately 60% of individuals with Feingold syndrome 1 have an affected parent; the proportion of cases caused by de novo mutations is unknown. Each child of an individual with Feingold syndrome 1 has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk is possible if the disease-causing mutation in the family has been identified.

For more info click on this link below, and work your way though the mass of links.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7050/

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Gastric pull-up

Long-term survivors after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up can enjoy good quality of life

March 19, 2014

Long-term survivors after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up can enjoy a satisfying meal and good quality of life according to a new study from a team of researchers at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles. This study concluded that pessimism about the long-term quality of life after an esophagectomy on the part of treating physicians and patients is unwarranted. It is published in the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, an official publication of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery.

Esophagectomy with gastric pull-up is a surgical procedure in which the stomach is used to replace the oesophagus. This procedure is an integral part of the curative treatment of oesophagal cancer, either as initial therapy or after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, and is also done for end-stage benign conditions in some patients. The surgery significantly impacts physical fitness and health-related quality of life early on, and can be associated with problems such as anastomotic strictures, rapid gastric emptying or “dumping,” and diarrhoea. Concerns about the surgery and early postoperative quality of life may lead patients to consider alternative therapies even though these options may not provide the same potential to cure cancer or address the oesophagal dysfunction.

There have been few reports on the recovery of quality of life long-term after esophagectomy. The longest previously reported study was five years after esophagectomy. In the current study, investigators looked at 40 patients (36 men and 4 women) who were at least 10 years and up to 19 years out from their surgery. The patients were interviewed about their alimentary satisfaction and gastrointestinal symptoms and were assessed for their gastrointestinal and overall quality of life. Patients were between 58 and 92 years old (median age 75) at the time of the survey.

“The quality of life in patients who survived ten or more years after esophagectomy and gastric pull-up was excellent, matching or exceeding population normal values,” observes senior investigator Steven R. DeMeester, MD, Professor and Clinical Scholar in the Department of Surgery at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. “The overwhelming majority of our patients were satisfied with their ability to eat and had a body-mass index (BMI) in the normal or overweight range.”

The investigators found that gastrointestinal symptoms were typically manageable, although troublesome dumping with meals, diarrhoea, or regurgitation occurred in one-third of the patients. Most patients had no swallowing problems, 90% were able to eat three or more meals a day, and 93% could finish more than half of a typical-sized meal. Few patients experienced serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia.

“Our findings show that pessimism regarding the long-term ability to enjoy a meal and live with a good quality of life after esophagectomy is unwarranted,” continues DeMeester. “This is important because sharing a meal is such an important social event for most people. In fact, you may have eaten dinner at a restaurant next to someone who has had an esophagectomy and never known it.” Dr DeMeester concludes with the caution that “an esophagectomy is a complex procedure and should be done by experienced surgeons at experienced centres to ensure the best outcome”.

pull up 1       pull up 2

www.keckmedicine.org/doctor/steven-r-demeester/

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Published on March 4, 2014

 Jackhammer Esophagus

New minimally-invasive procedure to treat jackhammer oesophagus

Six weeks ago 67-year old John Galbreath welcomed death, rather than live one more day. Intense pain in his chest had left him nearly bedridden for four months. Galbreath had a condition called jackhammer oesophagus, which made him feel like the name suggests—like a jackhammer was going off in his chest.

“This is a condition where the oesophagus spasms out of control and causes the patient to feel like they are having a heart attack 24/7,” said Dr Brian Dunkin, a minimally invasive surgeon at Houston Methodist Hospital. “With this condition, the oesophagus does not contract properly causing patients to either have terrible chest pain or not be able to swallow food or fluid without it backing up into the oesophagus. Now there’s an easier way to fix the problem, and we are the only ones doing it in Texas.”

The standard treatment for jackhammer oesophagus is to perform surgery through the chest and can include up to five incisions. Sometimes a tube is placed in the chest for two to three days and there is a minimum of two weeks off work.Now there’s a new minimally-invasive procedure to treat jackhammer oesophagus and another disorder called achalasia, which is when the opening between the oesophagus and stomach is blocked.

The procedure, Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy or POEM, involves fixing the problems through the mouth instead of the chest. Like they did with Galbreath, surgeons operate through the mouth using a gastroscope, a thin flexible camera made to look into the oesophagus and stomach. They drive the gastroscope down under the mucosa, the inner lining of the oesophagus, all the way to the stomach wall and then cut the muscle of the lower oesophagus and upper stomach to relieve the spasm and blockage. The POEM procedure leaves no surgical scars and is essentially pain-free and patients can return to work in less than a week.

“Most of these patients don’t realise how bad their situation has gotten until they can swallow again,” Dunkin said. “The pain and heartburn from spasm or food and fluid backing up are virtually gone and they can get on with a normal life.”

Galbreath says he felt like a new man as soon as he woke up from surgery.

“On Super Bowl Sunday, I was able to eat shrimp, chips and a hot dog with no pain or discomfort,” Galbreath said. “After years of being misdiagnosed, I cannot tell you how happy I am that I was properly diagnosed and able to undergo this procedure.”

Source: Houston Methodist Hospital

http://www.news-medical.net/news/20140304/New-minimally-invasive-procedure-to-treat-jackhammer-esophagus.aspx

 Jackhammer Esophagus

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-jackhammer-esophagus-1191896

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Hypertensive peristalsis

Hypertensive peristalsis, also known as nutcracker oesophagus, and or Esophageal Spasm is diagnosed when contractions proceed in a coordinated manner but the amplitude is excessive. Hypercontractile oesophagus, also known as jackhammer oesophagus, is an extreme phenotype of hypertensive contractions in which contractions are of very high amplitude, involving a majority of the oesophagus, and whose duration occurs for a prolonged period with a jackhammer-type appearance on high-resolution manometry.

Symptoms can include dysphagia, regurgitation, and noncardiac chest pain. Because of the vague symptoms and difficulty in diagnosis, the oesophagal spasm is often underdiagnosed and therefore not adequately treated. In many patients, manometric and radiologic abnormalities may not correlate with symptom presentation.

Currently, high-resolution manometry is the best diagnostic modality. Treatment includes calcium channel blockers, botulinum toxin, nitrates, tricyclic antidepressants, sildenafil, dilatation, myotomy, and esophagectomy. Research is ongoing to determine the underlying causes to improve diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic regimens in the future.

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/174975-overview

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Oesophagal Manometry Test

What is an oesophagal manometry test

esophageal manometry test

An oesophagal manometry test is a test used to evaluate the function of the oesophagus and the lower oesophagal sphincter (LES).  It must be well understood that this is not a specific test for GERD.  Rather, as the function is assessed, your physician may see changes that are consistent with GERD or may also discover specific oesophagal contraction disorders that may mimic GERD.  Approximately 5% of people thought to have GERD actually have one of the several oesophagal disorders uncovered with an oesophagal manometry test.  Also, many proven to have GERD by previous pH testing have normal or close to normal manometry studies.

To understand what happens during the manometry test, you must understand what happens when you swallow. In order to pass food, the oesophagus must contract in a sequential manner after swallowing.  The top end must contract first, then the middle, and then the bottom. This propels the food downward toward the stomach.  At the same time, the LES, located at the end of the oesophagus and just above the stomach, must open or relax to allow the food to pass into the stomach. All of these events are measured during manometry test in terms of pressure.  As part of the oesophagus squeezes, it generates pressure.  As the LES opens, its pressure lowers from its resting state.  The pressure measurements also measure the length of the LES and can detect a hiatus hernia, if present.

How is the test conducted?

The study, which takes about 20 minutes to complete, is conducted by passing a thin flexible tube containing 36 separate pressure sensors gently through the nose into the stomach.  During this test, you will be awake, but the nose is numbed with topical medicine. Once the tube is in place, you will be given a small amount of water to swallow.  As you swallow, the pressure measurements are processed by a computer and displayed on a screen.  After 10 swallows, the test is concluded and the tube is removed.  You will immediately be able to return to normal diet and activities.

As noted above, this is not a test for GERD.  A pH study usually is required for that.  However, in many patients with GERD, a manometry test can reveal important information about your condition. A manometry test can also diagnose other conditions of the oesophagus. Two examples include:

Click the highlighted Words to be taken to pages to explain. 

Achalasia: With this condition, the LES fails to relax. As a result, food cannot pass into the stomach and the patient will experience difficulty swallowing.

Nutcracker esophagus: ( also known as Jackhammer Esophagus.) This occurs when the oesophagus squeezes in sequence, but too vigorously.  This can cause chest pain, as well as swallowing difficulty.

http://www.refluxmd.com/esophageal-manometry-test/

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Chronic cough

Relationship between microaspiration, gastroesophageal reflux, and cough frequency

Microaspiration is often considered a potential cause of a cough. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between microaspiration, the degree and type of gastroesophageal reflux, and the frequency of coughing in patients with a chronic cough. Proximal gastroesophageal reflux and microaspiration into the airways have limited roles in provoking chronic cough. Indeed, coughing appears to be protective, reducing pepsin concentration in the larger airways of patients with a chronic cough.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797535

GERD-related cough

A chronic cough is a common problem resulting in significant impairment of quality of life. Along with cough variant asthma and nasal disease, gastroesophageal reflux is considered one of three main causes of a cough. Despite this, acid suppression therapy is often far from effective. This review aims to explore whether reflux can lead to a cough, the circumstances in which this is most likely to occur, and the potential mechanisms linking these processes. Particular mechanisms to be explored include laryngopharyngeal reflux, microaspiration, and neuronal cross-organ sensitization. Finally, diagnostic approaches are considered.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465223

Micro Aspiration

The oesophagus and cough: laryngopharyngeal reflux, microaspiration and vagal reflexes

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is generally considered to be one of the commonest causes of a chronic cough, however, randomised controlled trials of proton pump inhibitors have often failed to support this notion. This article reviews the most recent studies investigating the mechanisms thought to link reflux and cough, namely laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, micro-aspiration and neuronal cross-organ sensitisation. How recent evidence might shed light on the failure of acid-suppressing therapies and suggest new approaches to treating reflux related cough are also discussed.

Click on the RED No’s

For over 30 years gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) has been considered to be a cause of a chronic cough, either singly or in association with nasal disease and/or asthma [1]. This was initially based on observational studies and small treatment trials of acid suppressants [234]. However, it is the experience of many clinicians that although some patients with a chronic cough do claim relief from acid-suppressants, the majority do not. One of the difficulties in understanding why this might be the case has been a shortage of high-quality evidence. Indeed a recent Cochrane review of various treatments of GORD (H2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, motility agents, fundoplication or conservative treatments) for a chronic cough found that meta-analysis was not possible for most treatments in adults and none in children due to poor trial design and lack of appropriate data [5]. Nonetheless, a number of appropriately designed randomised controlled trials have been completed assessing acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in adults with a chronic cough [6789]. The majority of these trials reported negative findings and an intention-to-treat analysis of the pooled data found no significant difference from placebo control. The reasons for this lack of efficacy of PPI therapy in a chronic cough are unclear but possible explanations include:

Full report

http://coughjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-9974-9-12

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Does Fish oil help fight off colds?

( Please ask your Doctors before giving omega fish oil or cod liver oil)

On a Personal Note

I  (Steve Wyles) worked outside in all weathers, for 16 years and I took a high dose of omega 3, tablet, every day, and rarely got a bad standard cold. My own daughter has a very poor immune system, because of her rare condition, but she lives on a high fat diet to fuel her brain etc and rarely gets a cold. I personally believe this has something to do with her high fat diet 

I cant say this will help your Children. But ask your Doctor’s you never know

Colds are no fun for anyone, but for newborns, any assault on their still-developing immune systems can be dangerous. But moms-to-be can reduce the risk that their little ones will get sick by taking fish oil supplements.

In a study published in Pediatrics, researchers at Emory University and in Mexico report that women taking 400 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil, helped their one-month newborns to fight off more cold symptoms such as coughing, nasal congestion and runny noses than moms who took a placebo. The cold-fighting effect lasted for six months; by that time, the DHA-protected infants experienced about the same amount of cold symptoms as the babies whose mothers did not take DHA, but their symptoms didn’t last as long.

“I wouldn’t want to overplay the benefits, but the findings do suggest some benefits early in life,” says the study’s lead author Usha Ramakrishnan, a professor in the department of global health at Emory University School of Public Health. “This is one of the first studies to look at nutritional interventions during pregnancy and immune function of newborns later on.”

READ ON

http://healthland.time.com/2011/08/01/fish-oil-during-pregnancy-fights-colds-among-newborns/

How to Use Cod Liver Oil to Fight Upper Respiratory Inflammation

Click on the underlined RED wording

1. Fish oil relaxes tight air passages.

One of the first things you notice when you get a cold is a tingly sensation in your nostrils, and maybe in the back of your throat. This is quickly followed by irritation and a sensation of tightness. Exercise physiologists at Indiana University have found that taking fish oil relieves tight, constricted breathing passages just as effectively as a nose spray or, in some cases, as an inhaler.

These scientists also found that using both fish oil and a medication has no cumulative benefit in relieving upper respiratory airway constriction, and, of course, you need to be taking fish oil before you come down with the infection. That is, be sure to add fish oil to your supplement routine at the beginning of your colds, flu, or allergy season.

2. Fish oil relieves allergic inflammation.

While many of us ask ourselves the question of whether what we have is a cold or an allergy, the simple fact is, a lot of the time it’s both. Fish oil contains omega-3 essential fatty acids that relieve inflammation caused by allergies.

3. Cod liver oil corrects vitamin D deficiency.

One of the reasons we get colds when the weather gets cooler is that many kinds of rhinoviruses are activated by lower temperatures. Another of the reasons we get colds when the weather gets cooler is that we spend more time in confined spaces with other people who may be infected. And a third reason we get colds when the weather turns cooler is that the days are shorter and our bodies don’t make as much vitamin D.

But that doesn’t mean we need supplemental vitamin D all the time. And I’ll explain what this has to do with fish oil in a moment.

Researchers Dr. John Aloia and Dr. Melissa Li-Ng at the Winthrop University Hospital in Mineola, New York tracked patients who took no supplemental vitamin D, 800 IU of supplemental vitamin D daily, and 2000 IU of supplemental vitamin D daily throughout an entire year. They found that the participants in their study who took no supplemental vitamin D at all reported 25 days during the winter when they felt symptoms of colds or flu.

The researchers found that study participants who took 800 IU of vitamin D a day reported just 3 days during the winter when they felt colds or flu, and that those who took 2000 IU of vitamin D a day didn’t have any colds or flu days at all during winter months. Aloia and Li-Ng, however, did not just study the effects of vitamin D during the winter. They also tracked their patients during the spring, summer, and fall.

People who didn’t take any vitamin D at all tended to have a few “cold and flu days” during every season of the year. People who took 800 IU of vitamin D a day had just 1 or 2 days with symptoms during every 3-month period. People who took 2000 IU of vitamin D a day didn’t have any colds or flu during the winter, spring, or fall, but tended to have 1 or 2 days with symptoms in the summer.

This study suggests that vitamin D protects against colds and flu, but it may be possible to get too much as well as too little. I don’t recommend anyone take vitamin D for colds and flu prevention during the summer. Taking vitamin D during cool-weather seasons is enough.

But what does that have to do with fish oil?

Cod liver oil is a great source of both omega-3 essential fatty acids and vitamin D. It is an easy way to get both the omega-3’s that fight inflammation and the vitamin D that fights infection.

Fish oil typically does not contain vitamin D, and shark liver oil contains a lot of substances you just don’t want to take into your body. Cod liver oil, in capsules, is the easiest way to get both omega-3’s and vitamin D in a single dose, nine months of the year.

Nowadays, cod liver oil doesn’t taste bad. You can still buy a big bottle of liquid cod liver oil, and some companies, like Green Pasture, offer excellent prices for cod liver oil in bulk. Chances are, however, that you and your family would prefer cod liver oil capsules like those made by Nordic Naturals for use by the entire family throughout autumn, winter, and spring.

You’ll catch fewer colds outside the home, and there will be less sharing of colds and flu through the family, due to the generous provision of vitamin D. Just be sure to take enough cod liver oil to get 2,000 IU of vitamin D a day for adults, or 1,000 IU per day for children.

http://www.fattyacidshub.com/fish-oil/benefits/fish-oil-for-colds/

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 Kick Colds Fast With A Detox Bath. 

If you want to be prepared for a new flu season, then I have an amazing tip for you: How To Kick Colds Fast With A Detox Bath.

After several years of learning about natural remedies, a good detox bath is one of my favorite ways of kicking a cold fast. Taking a detox bath will help your kids relax, clean their systems of toxins, and absorb wonderful minerals that will strengthen their immune systems.

After a full day of activities, your kids are feeling miserable because of a cold. They are cracky, congested, irritable and just a mess. How To Kick Colds Fast With a Detox Bath is the perfect way to make your kids feel better and relaxed when they are sick. In my experience, it really helps.

A few weeks ago, my 5 year old son caught a cold. The same day he started to show cold symptoms, I made sure to give him a detox bath. He slept for 12 hours straight afterwards! He woke up the following morning feeling much better. This is when I realized I had to write a post about detox baths.

Your kids are exposed to a lot of toxins from pollution, household cleaners, and processed foods that are full of chemicals and additives. A detox bath with magnesium has the power to eliminate those toxins. So it is also a good idea to just give your kids a detox bath once a week, even if they are not sick to keep their immune systems strong and free of toxins.

I try to take a detox bath once a week too. It is so relaxing and I feel completely rested and energized the following day. If you want to learn all about detox baths and why you should take them, please see this wonderful article HERE. It explains in depth all the wonderful benefits of taking a detox bath.

Studies have shown that magnesium and sulfate are both readily absorbed through the skin, making Epsom salt baths an easy and ideal way to enjoy the associated health benefits. Magnesium plays a number of roles in the body including regulating the activity of over 325 enzymes, reducing inflammation, helping muscle and nerve function, and helping to prevent artery hardening. Sulfates help improve the absorption of nutrients, flush toxins, and help ease migraine headaches.

Also the Ladys Food Blog is on this website under the heading FOOD

http://creativeandhealthyfunfood.com/how-to-kick-colds-fast-with-a-detox-bath/

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