understanding medicine

understanding medicine from across the world

on our facebook group, and others, I see many asking the question

what does this drug do?

what are the side effects?

what, if, or, how??

this page although small we hope might help to answer these questions.

we have got a number of site’s from USA and UK, and international, so you can cross-reference what you are looking for.

Medication across the world

UK Drug Information

UK Database contains drug information on over 1,500 medications distributed within the United Kingdom.

Search the UK Drug Database A to Z List of UK Medications

http://www.drugs.com/uk/

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U.S.A Drug Information

Search the U.S.A Drug Database A to Z List of Medications

The resources below have been provided to help narrow your search to specific, targeted drug information. Information is available for both consumers and healthcare professionals on over 24,000 prescriptions and over the counter medicines available primarily in the USA.

http://www.drugs.com/drug_information.html

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International Drug Names

The Drugs.com International Drug Name Database contains information about medications found in 185 countries around the world. The database contains more than 40,000 medication names marketed outside the USA and is presented in multiple languages.

Many of the medications listed here are marketed under different names in different countries. Country and region specific information is shown where available. Please note that some medications may also be available in countries not specified.

http://www.drugs.com/international/

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Other site’s we have found or been told about

U.S. National Library of Medicine

http://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drugportal.jsp

Apple and Android phone app's

Medication Guide

The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. All mobile-optimized to speed up your browsing experience. Available for Android and iOS devices.

http://www.drugs.com/apps/

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Pill Reminder App

Use our Pill Reminder app to keep a complete list of all your medications. When you add your meds, you can also choose to get pill reminders and/or script reminder notifications right on your mobile device. You can also add personal notes and get easy access to important information about your medicine online such as side effects, dosage and safe use during pregnancy.

ONLY on Apple Phones Pill Reminder app

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/my-meds-pill-reminder-by-drugs.com/id453359236?mt=8

Antibiotic use in early life disrupt normal gut microbiota development

january 26, 2016

This was something I have been sent by a Parent and asked If I could be the awareness of this to other Parents, I guess at the end of the day you do what you need to do for your child who is ill. The use of antibiotics in early childhood interferes with normal development of the intestinal microbiota, shows research conducted at the University of Helsinki. Particularly the broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotics commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, have adverse effects. Macrolides appear also to contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. I guess we all read the papers where they are already saying the use of antibiotics is too widespread, and more is needed to find a better way,It is already known that early-life use of antibiotics is connected to increased risk of immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma, as well as obesity. The effect is thought to be mediated by the intestinal microbes since antibiotics in animal studies have been found to change the composition of the intestinal microbiota and reduce biodiversity. However, to date, there is no information on the long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s microbiota.

The study, conducted at the University of Helsinki and led by Professor Willem de Vos, included 142 Finnish children, aged 2 to 7 years. Researchers investigated how many courses of antibiotics the children had received in their lifetime and how the use of antibiotics was reflected in their intestinal microbiota. In addition, they investigated the association between use of antibiotics and asthma and body mass index. The study is published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

The results showed that children’s intestinal microbiota composition clearly reflected the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics reduced the bacterial species richness and slowed the age-driven microbiota development. Particularly the microbiota of the children who had received macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin or clarithromycin, within the past two years differed from normal. The less time had passed since the macrolide course, the larger were the anomalies in the microbiota.

“In general, it seems that the gut microbiota recovery from antibiotic treatment lasts more than a year. If a child gets repeated courses of antibiotics during their first years, the microbiota may not have time to fully recover”, says the researcher, Katri Korpela, whose doctoral thesis project includes the newly published research.

The results support the recommendation to avoid macrolides as the primary antibiotic and generally restrict the use of antibiotics to genuine need. Antibiotics should not be used to treat self-limiting infections and never ‘just in case’, the researchers emphasize.

http://m.medicalxpress.com/news/2016-01-antibiotic-early-life-disrupt-gut.html

 

First Online: 

Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula (TEF) in a Newborn Following Maternal Antenatal Exposure to Olanzapine.

Abstract

There is a dearth of evidence on the safety of the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy. Olanzapine, a pregnancy category C drug, has no unequivocal evidence of harm to the fetus. Against this backdrop, we report the first case of a tracheal- esophageal fistula (TEF) in a newborn following maternal antenatal exposure to olanzapine. A 29-year-old woman with the acute psychotic disorder had been treated with olanzapine for the last 7 years. Her first pregnancy, while taking olanzapine, resulted in a miscarriage at 4 months’ gestation, following which she discontinued olanzapine. She reconceived after a few months and delivered a full-term normal child. However, due to the recurrence of psychiatric illness after her second pregnancy, she was prescribed olanzapine again, which was continued throughout her third pregnancy. The outcome of the third pregnancy was a full-term female baby with a TEF.

Read the full report here.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40800-016-0044-6

 

A microfluidic model of human lung inflammatory disorders provides a new and systematic way to analyse disease mechanisms and test new drug candidates

(BOSTON) — A research team at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University leveraged its organ-on-a-chip technology to develop a model of the human small airway in which lung inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the third leading cause of mortality worldwide, and asthma can be studied outside the human body. As reported advanced online on December 21 in Nature Methods, the platform allows researchers to gain new insights into the disease mechanisms, identify novel biomarkers and test new drug candidates.

COPD and asthma are inflammatory reactions in the lung which can be dramatically exacerbated by viral and bacterial infections, as well as smoking. It is known that many of the associated disease processes occur in the conducting airway sections of the lung that shuttle air to and from the alveoli or air sacs. However, much less is known about how inflammation induces distinct pathological processes such as the recruitment of circulating white blood cells and the buildup of mucus, which compromise the lungs of these patients, or how clinical exacerbations are triggered.

“Inspired by our past work using the organ-on-a-chip approach to model the lung alveolus, we created a new microfluidic model of the lung small airway that recapitulates critical features of asthma and COPD with unprecedented fidelity and detail. Now with this micro-engineered human lung small airway, we can study lung inflammatory diseases over several weeks in chips lined by cells from both normal donors and diseased patients to gain better insight into disease mechanisms, as well as screen for new therapeutics,” said Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., the senior author on this work who is leading a multidisciplinary team of Wyss scientists that has been at the forefront of organ-on-chip technology. He is also the Wyss Institute’s Founding Director, the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital, and Professor of Bioengineering at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Demand for such opportunities is especially high since small airway inflammation cannot be adequately studied in human patients or animal models and, to date, there are no effective therapies that can stop or reverse the complex and widespread inflammation-driven processes.

“To closely mimic the complex 3D cellular architecture of actual human small airways, we designed a microfluidic device that contains a fully matured human small airway epithelium with different specialised cell types exposed to air in one of its two parallel microchannels. The second channel is lined by a human vascular endothelium in which we flow medium containing white blood cells and nutrients so that the living microsystem can be maintained over weeks. We then modelled inflammatory asthma and COPD conditions by adding an asthma-inducing immune factor or by setting up the system with lung epithelial cells obtained from patients with COPD,” said Remi Villenave, Ph.D., a former postdoctoral fellow in Ingber’s group and the co-first author on the publication. In both cases, the team was not only able to observe highly disease- and cell type-specific changes but could also exacerbate them with agents simulating viral or bacterial infection.

Read on click on link.

http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/235

FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived From Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy

https://www.practiceupdate.com/content/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-of-an-active-ingredient-derived-from-marijuana-to-treat-rare-severe-forms-of-epilepsy/70106

This approval serves as a reminder that advancing sound development programs that properly evaluate active ingredients contained in marijuana can lead to important medical therapies

June 28th 2018